UP FOR DEBATE: Foundations
To solve today's complex social problems, foundations need to shift from the prevailing model of strategic philanthropy that attempts to predict outcomes to an emergent model that better fits the realities of creating social change in a complex world.
Rita E. Hauser Senior Lecturer in the Practice of Philanthropy and Nonprofit Leadership Harvard Kennedy School
Traditional strategic philanthropy doesn't always work for what the authors call "simple" or "complicated" problems.
Carnegie Professor of Public Affairs, Director of the Scholarly Knowledge Project Columbia University
Foundation history is littered with examples of refashioning grant strategies when unexpected events occur.
President Ford Foundation
Strategic philanthropy too often minimizes or ignores complexity because it is difficult to understand and predict.
CEO Vodafone Foundation
Philanthropy that doesn't provide for the uncertainties of human conduct is usually doomed to fail.
Vice President for Initiatives and Strategy Rockefeller Foundation
A strategy for a complex problem should be seen as a framework for action, learning, and continual improvement.
President Monitor Institute
Strategic philanthropy is smart but not wise, which is why so many leaders have voiced doubts about it.
Professor of Social Policy and Director of the Nonprofit Leadership Program University of Pennsylvania
Whether the problem is simple, complicated, or complex, the challenge is where to set the boundaries.
Emeritus Professor, Lecturer, and Faculty Co-Director Stanford Law School, Graduate School of Business, and Stanford Center on Philanthropy and Civil Society
It's best to think of simple and complex problems as lying on a continuum, not on two sides of a divide.
Founder Center for Strategic Philanthropy and Civil Society at Duke University's Sanford School of Public Policy, Surdna Foundation
I am concerned that the odds against getting philanthropy to change course are almost too great to overcome in any reasonable time frame.
Managing Director FSGMark Kramer
Co-Founder, Managing Director, Senior Fellow FSG, Harvard Kennedy SchoolPatty Russell
Last Word: John Kania, Mark Kramer, and Patty Russell respond to the eight people who responded to their article.